Robotics and autonomous systems enable us to interact more richly and extensively with the world we live in. Aerial, ground, and marine robots have given us unprecedented access to some of the most dramatic landscapes and habitats in our universe. Aerial and ground robots have mapped the three dimensional spatio-temporal geometry of the Earth’s surface which gives us better understanding of erosion, transport and sedimentation, as well as earthquakes, landslides, and volcanoes. Marine robots have tracked the health of coral reefs and the melting of tidewater glaciers which are harbingers of climate change. In this talk, I will highlight our efforts in developing robotic systems and strategies in support of ocean sciences and geology. I will show how understanding the complexities of the ocean enables us to develop more effective robotic strategies both in the ocean and on land. I will conclude with our recent collaborations with geologists and discuss the unique challenges in developing robotic systems in support of geological data collection.