# A Glimpse into GRASP Research: Manipulation

Featuring Caio Mucchiani

Video Version:

Vocabulary

Manipulation – “Robotic manipulation refers to the ways robots interact with the objects around them: grasping an object, opening a door, packing an order into a box, folding laundry… All these actions require robots to plan and control the motion of their hands and arms in an intelligent way.” – University of Leads

Closed Form Solution – Generally, problems are said to have a closed-form solution if they can be expressed by simple functions and mathematical operations. For example, the motion of a simple pendulum can be modeled with physics equations (closed form) but the interaction of a robot manipulator with objects is too complex to capture with physics equations (no closed form solution). – Brilliant and Wolfram Mathworld

Degrees of Freedom (DOF or DoF) – “Degrees of freedom are specific, defined modes in which a mechanical device or system can move. The number of degrees of freedom is equal to the total number of independent displacements or aspects of motion.” Note that Degrees of Freedom has other uses, such as in statistics. Here we refer to usage in physics and mechanics. – Techtarget

End Effectors – End effectors of robot arms interact with the world or a task. They can be tools (such as welding torches), sensors (such as cameras), or grippers (like those seen in this video). Researchers of robot manipulation study the many forms of grippers and how to use them effectively.

Activities
Curriculum Connections
Math (Common Core)Science (NGSS)
StandardDescriptionStandardDescription
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.G.B.8Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate systemHS-ETS1-1, HS-ETS1-2, HS-ETS1-3Engineering Design
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.G.A.1Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problemsMS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-2, MS-ETS1-3Engineering Design
HS-PS2-1Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.
MS-PS2-2Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.